Which of the following types of group would most likely be impacted by a “bad apple”?

Which of the following types of group would most likely be impacted by a “bad apple”?

The best answers is Self-managed

Now lets try to understand what is group formation In this lesson we are going to decipher the different types of groups that emerge in the organization as a part of its structure The official structure of the organization gives rise to formal groups and the unofficial structure gives rise to informal groups The study of group behavior has garnered a lot of interest in the global business scape because of increasing workforce diversity in the organizations and the challenges posed by a diversified group which mans the organizations It of course a challenge for behavioral specialists to leverage the workforce diversity in their favor by utilizing their creativity for product and service development

Well my dear students now you know what are groups, these are basically two or more individuals, interacting with each other who are interdependent on each other and of course who come together to achieve particular objectives As is already been discussed, groups may be formal groups or they may be informal It has been already described to you that formal groups are the one’s which are defined by the organization structure On the other hand the informal groups are neither formally structured nor organizationally determined There are different types of groups as has already been discussed and in these formal groups are those which are defined by the organization structure which has a very predetermined designated work assignments allotted to the members of the groups which has clear-cut establishment of the tasks which are to be performed by different members of the groups the behaviors that they are supposed to engage in as being a part of the group this all things are stipulated by and directed towards organizational goals

For example an Airline flight crew is an example of a formal group let’s try to be more specific and make you understand what are formal groups we all have seen formal groups in the form of Airline flight crew or it could be members of the crew on a cruise while you are travelling it could be members of the fire brigade working to extinguish the fire or it could be a members of the Bomb defusing Squad or it could be a CBI investigating team so these are all examples of a formal group in different forms of organizational settings and not to forget the Indian cricket team this is also a very good example of a formal group Now let’s understand what are informal groups All of you are aware of the informal groups though but still for your better understanding informal groups can be referred to as alliances that a need of formal is structured not organizationally determined where natural formations in the work environment are in response to the need for social contact For example three employees from different departments regularly eat lunch together is an informal group

Let us try to understand again the formal groups and the informal groups Now I would like to tell you that the formal groups are specifically more in the nature of being command groups or and the task groups so basically command groups and task groups are a type of formal groups Now let me tell you that command groups are determined by the organization chart On the other hand the task group is where the members of the group they working together to complete a specific task or a job assigned to them I think this would make you understand the nature of formal groups more clearly let’s now move on to the informal groups

Now as you already know these informal groups can further be understood in terms of interest groups or friendship groups where the interest groups are the one where the individuals affiliate with each other to attend a specific objective of shared interest to the group while the friendship groups are the most informal ones where the members have one or more common characteristics and they love being in the company of each other It may or may not have any specific set of objectives viz a viz the task group or the command group which are in the nature of the formal groups As is already been explain to you it’s important again to be very clear as to the nature of the command groups let me tell you that command groups are dictated by the formal organization where the organization chart or to be more specific the hierarchy in the organization determines a command group in that the task groups are organizationally determined and represent those working together to complete a job task The informal groups as has already been explain to you are the interest groups or the friendship groups An interest group is where people affiliate with each other to attend a specific social objective with which each is concerned

while the friendship groups often develop or take place because the individual members of the group have one or more common characteristics like they may be belonging to the same gender they may be going to the same school to the same college to the same University or they come from a common neighborhood or they may be coming from the same geographical locations social alliances which frequently extend outside the work situation can be based on similar age ethnic Heritage social economic status or love for music, movies, sports to name a few So the informal groups basically are meant to satisfy the member’s social needs which is very important in today’s Era Type of work groups informal groups Now will try to understand what are the different type of work groups that can be a part of formal group in the organization which have been set up going to their nature in the task groups or the organization group this could be in the nature of production groups, management groups, service groups, project groups or they can also be in the nature of action and performing groups Let’s take them up one by one and understand what are production groups

Now basically group types are distinguished by the work that these groups do So a production group consists of Frontline employees who produced some tangible output The autonomous production groups are self directed or self-managing while this semi-autonomous production groups typically have a dedicated supervisor who sees or overseas all the operations on the shop floor The second type of groups are the management groups These consist of an executive or senior manager along with managers that report directly to him or her

Now all of you know that management groups are often able to organize themselves towards goals such as policymaking, budgeting, stuffing, planning They are concerned with all types of managerial activities right from planning, organizing, directing, controlling, coordinating, everything is done by these management groups across various levels starting from the top level the middle level and the junior level in the organizational hierarchy Then there are other groups called service group Now these service groups consists of employees that work with customers on a repeated basis just like airline teams, the maintenance groups, the sales groups, the groups at the call centre etc or to be more specific groups working in hospitality sector, groups working in hotels, hospitals, banks, insurance companies or even the food outlets so this is an example of a service group

The project groups Now you understand what a projects and you can also visualize that whenever a project is to be accomplished there is a formation of a group who aims to achieve the objective of that project Now a project usually comprises of cross functional group of people or individuals who are brought together for a duration of a specific time Limited project Now these members of the group are from marketing they can be from human resources one of them could be from finance another one could be from IT and another one maybe from the production So basically a project group encompasses people coming from cross section of the managerial cadre in the organization and as soon as the objective or the project is accomplished the project groups are usually disbanded once the project is complete

Another type of groups are the action groups and the performing groups know it is very interesting to note that action and performing groups are the ones that typically consists of export specialist who conduct Complex time-limited performance events for example musical band for example military Cruise for example a team of doctors operating upon an individual and performing a certain Complex surgery like a heart surgery for example rescue units people are being rescued from Tsunami hit areas earthquake hit areas or a tornado or it could be professional music groups or it could be celebrities performing on the stage So these are all the action and performing groups who are performing a certain time limited event Another type of group could be the advisory groups now you’ve already heard of advisory groups these consist of employees that work outside of but parallel with production processes for example you heard of quality circles where a group of people are the employees they come together and meet regularly to find out the reasons for low efficiency or low production and they try to check out the solutions to fix the problems or they could be certain selection committee who are involved in selecting the employees in the government sector or it could be in the private sector or the other advisor groups pull together to make recommendations to an organization so basically the advisory groups are the people who work outside and not inside the group actually After understanding the different types of groups which I have already told you which are in the nature of service groups, project groups, action and performing groups, advisory group and management groups let us come to the next stage of understanding intergroup dynamics and behavior My dear students intergroup behavior or the way groups interact with other groups is best examined in terms of the frequency and interaction type the groups engage in

in 1976 Thomas elaborated on this concept by noting that the nature of intergroup interactions depends largely on the degree to which groups must interact with each other to achieve their goals and the degree of compatibility between the goals of different groups Individual Now you know that what is intergroup dynamics when people interact with each other in a group intergroup dynamics can take any one of the following connotations that is there could be accommodation in the group, there could be avoidance, there could be collaboration, there could be competition, there could be compromised, there could be de-individuation or there could be diffusion of responsibility Now let us try to understand these connotations one by one When the group dawns upon itself the accommodating nature the interaction in the group is based on having similar goals and taking part in minimal to moderate mutual concession and cooperation to achieve that So basically the members in the group are inclined towards accommodating each other by not disagreeing on any matter

The second could be avoidance This interaction is found between groups where there are different or conflicting goals and even minimal collaboration is not warranted both of these interactions are viewed as having no too low impact on successfully achieving each group’s goals While the third connotation in the nature of collaboration is necessary when the goals of two groups are largely compatible and partnership is required for successful goal accomplishment On the other hand the inter group dynamics can be competitive in nature also now this competition interaction usually occurs when two groups must interact to meet specific goals that are vastly incompatible another intergroup dynamics connotation could be compromised now this occurs when two groups have a moderate need to interact to meet specific goals that are moderately compatible in this interaction the two groups may work together on a semi regular basis to ensure that they are on track to meet the overlapping goals when there is another intergroup dynamics nature which is in the nature of De individuation Now it’s important to understand what is De individuation my dear students this is a phenomenon that occurs when individuals of a group become less aware of their own value system the another one is diffusion of responsibility

Now this is the tendency of the group members to feel diminished responsibility for their actions when surrounded by others who are behaving in a similar manner Intergroup behavior is influenced by factors beyond interaction types now it’s important to understand that interdependence in intergroup behavior is very important now all of you know what is interdependence well it’s a degree to which group depend on each other and is determined by the type of group tasks that is if the task is simple or Complex organization structure and the organizational authority system interdependence may occur in one of the three common forms it could be pooled interdependence, it could be sequential interdependence or it could be reciprocal interdependence Now the pool interdependence is the combined efforts of largely separate groups positively contribute to the group, in sequential interdependence the effort or output of one group is used as the input for another group, in the reciprocal interdependence a series of mutual exchanges between groups requiring a high degree of continuous interactions takes place Well my dear students now you know organizational culture is a very important aspect of groups and organizational culture and its shared norms values in power structure they often dictate the frequency and the degree to which intergroup interactions and collaboration occur in the organization along with this the past history with intergroup relationships is also very important Now this past history with intergroup relationship it also impact the interdependence behavior amongst the team members all the members of a group the influence of this factor is directly connected to the past interaction experience between the group that has been taking place over a period of time in some other group commitments

Now whether the interaction was positive or negative new group members may be influenced in the direction of the group previous experience Another important thing is social network in the organization as you are aware social networks in organization they are another vital factor when considering intergroup behavior cordial individual group behavior members interaction is believed greatly impact the quality of intergroup relationship Let’s try to understand the causes of intergroup conflict all of you know why a conflict would occur in any group this could be because of the resources because of goal incompatibility because of time incompatibility or it could be because of the contentious influence tactics which are used by the other members of the group well the resources could be budgets, personal and the physical space resources are generally Limited within organizations so that competition for resources between groups is often unavoidable The goal incompatibility occurs when the goals of two or more groups are indirect opposition such that one group achieves its goals while the other group cannot meet their goal Goal incompatibility may be distinguished between real goal incompatibility and perceived goal incompatibility

On the other hand time incompatibility is where the workgroups perform different tasks have different goals and interact with different customers such that groups operate under different deadlines the contentions influence techniques for example Threads demands and other negative behavior may be used to try to influence members of another group creating cycles of retaliation and influencing opinions of those within their own Groups for example bad reputation Consequences of intergroup conflict Now as you know whenever there is a conflict between groups the consequences are the effects related to the conflict could be either negative or positive The group members perceptions of one another change in a negative manner there a distinction is made between in group and out group members of groups in conflict develop an us versus them mentality and view members of the other group as fundamentally different from themselves but similar to each other the group members become more cohesive to compete against a common enemy The other consequence could be that the quality of intergroup interactions for example the communication within the group may decline among groups in conflict which in turn may decrease the quality of the work or the negative perceptions of the other group may be transferred to incoming group members and last but not the least conflict may create discrepancies between the goals of the group and the goals of the organization which could be detrimental to the health of the organization

Now let’s try to understand how we can improve the quality of intergroup relations which is very important for the group performance The quality of intergroup relations can be improved by introducing superordinate goals amongst the team members by entering into negotiations over period of time or during the group activities inculcating and encouraging member exchanges and of course intergroup team development Of course reducing the need for intergroup interaction and ensuring that the resource allocation process is fair and equitable to all the members in the organization would definitely improve the quality of intergroup relations Now the first important thing through which quality of intergroup relations can be improved by imposing superordinate goals now what is superordinate goals these are the goals that are approved by all the groups and that may require the groups to interact in a Cooperative matter to achieve the goals for example producer product prepare a report and complete the service to customers Superordinate goals may also be used to create a common enemy that increases the cohesion among group members to defeat the enemy so this could be one of the methods of improving the quality of intergroup relations

Now my dear students we have already told you about the consequences of intergroup conflict now we come to the next stage that is how we can improve the quality of intergroup relations you’ve already understood that the intergroup quality relationships can be improved by imposing superordinate goals it can also be done through negotiations through member exchanges through intergroup team development through reducing the need of intergroup interaction or it could be done by proper resource allocation which can be done in a fair and equitable manner Now let us try to find out what is negotiation and how it helps in improving the intergroup relationships Well all of you know what is negotiation basically by entering into negotiation it facilitates communication of issues that cause conflict between groups so that groups can form a resolution suitable to everyone and you must know that principled negotiation is a style of negotiation where members try to problem solve until they reach a resolution rather than focus on individual positions Member exchanges by encouraging member exchanges which allows group members to exchange roll with those of the other group members it can provide a newer perspective to the group and can help in enhancing group effectiveness Intergroup team development

Intergroup team development may be used to improve relations for members within the same group or between groups One intervention developed by Blake Shepherd and Martin in 1964 has members of both groups generate One List about how the group perceive the other group and one list that describes how they think the other group describe them now hear the group share the list to reduce the miss perceptions about each other another Now another need could be reducing the need for intergroup interaction this may be necessary for groups especially the workgroup that cannot work well together a coordinating group may be used as an intermediary between groups so that each group would communicate through the coordinating group organizations we create slack resources by adding additional inventory so that groups do not have to interact as frequently now the organizations may also reduce task interdependence between those groups that function under different time frames and deadlines that is the groups which are physically separate Another method could be fair and equitable distribution of resources so that all the groups have access to the process and political considerations between groups are minimized the organization should first Reexamine the process to determine that groups have the resources needed to be effective There are different task and maintenance functions of groups which is very important to be understood my dear students the task functions would be initiating activities like suggesting new ideas defining the problems crisply and unambiguous terms proposing the alternative solution to the problems etc

then the task function could be the task of seeking information which involve asking for ideas, suggestions, information or various facts related to the task which would help in its successful completion then of course another task function could be giving the relevant information it could also be elaborating the various concepts which may not be cleared to the group members and of course coordinating the various activities of the group members and ensuring that there is no overlapping in the tasks The task functions would thus be summarizing the ideas given by the members and reaching to some logical conclusions testing those ideas but trying and applying them evaluating the effectiveness of the ideas diagnosing the problems if any in the task and rectifying them Now let us talk about the maintenance related functions Now these functions could be more important than the task functions as these help in creating a warm and comfortable friendly environment in the group It of course enhances the satisfaction level of the group members and improve the interpersonal relations and the bonding with each other

Now the group which takes the pains together stick together and helps the members in overcoming obstacles more effectively than a non-cohesive group The functions which could be a part of the maintenance group are supporting following or gatekeeping it could be supporting the members come what may or it could be following other members lead can prove to be as important as being the leader then gate keeping the communication by balance in the contributions from all the members this is important because the journey to the achievement of the task is usually replete with anxieties and tensions which needs to be taken care of for the smooth functioning of the group It’s essential that all the negative and destructive energy are nipped at the bud Setting high and reasonable standards of performance for the group let me remind you these are maintenance functions After setting high and reasonable standards

Allowing the group members to express themselves freely is also very important then test in the group decision is another important function then of course consensus testing should be there An effort should be made in harmonizing the conflicting situation if at all they occur during the course of the action and of course every effort should be made to reduce the tensions if any in the completion of the task Now let us try to understand the factors influencing group effectiveness which is very important my dear students there are four factors the first is the group structure the second is the work steam processes the third is that diversity in the group and the fourth is the creativity of the group The work team or the group structure is the first and the most important dimension of ensuring group effectiveness which has to have 4 things 1 the goals and objectives clearly outlining what is to be achieved covering the operating guidelines which sets the organizational boundaries and decision making limits within which the group has to operate performance measures to be applied for evaluating the group performance role specifications for the individual executive and the whole group should be very clearly delineated and disseminated throughout the group to enable them to co-ordinate activities with each other in a more effective and efficient manner the work team in the group structure thus should carry out or encompass or outline clearly the goals and objectives of the group the operating guidelines the performance measures and the role specifications Work team processes the second most important dimension of ensuring group effectiveness is to have a well-defined work team process and compressing the two process issues that is Managing of the Cooperative behavior and the managing of the competitive behaviors

The managing of the Co-operative behaviors includes open communication trust faith interdependence of group members personal integrity and mutual support amongs the members while managing of competitive behavior includes enjoying and encouraging the spirit of healthy competition among members disseminating correct information with regard to the presence of competition so these are the two types of the work team processes now another aspect is workforce diversity as all of you know we’re leaving in a global village where the workforce diversity is the Hallmark of multinational or global organizations This diversity can be in the nature of diverse people belonging to diverse ethnicities gender culture which is clearly visible in today’s Global workforce or the multinational organizations Now it is important to understand that the diversified group exhibits one of the five basic styles where the members could be in the nature of being a contributor being a collaborator being a communicator being a Challenger or an integrator let’s try to understand who contributed is Now a contributor is a person who is data driven and justify everything with facts and figures and believes in taking a rational informed decisions but adhering to high standards of performance on the other hand the collaborative is a person who enable everybody in the organization to be focused on the achievement of the desired mission and purpose the communicator is the one who listens to every member well facilitates the group processes and humanizes is the collective efforts of the group members the Challenger on the other hand is the one who acts like a devil’s advocate in the group and does not hesitate and questioning everything and every member with regard to every issue ranging from the Purpose to the mission to the methodologies to even the ethical standards of the group on the other hand the integrator is the one who ensures that the conflicts and problems of cross functional and diverse teams are sorted out and they do not hamper the groups productivity and efficiency So the five basic styles of a diversified groups are the contributor the collaborative the communicator the Challenger and the integrator

Now let’s try to understand the importance of creativity in intergroup dynamics Though creativity is increasingly viewed as an individual trait research has shown that most of the product development have taken place due to team creativity it’s because of the diversified groups and teams that the groups are able to deliver above average and sometimes extraordinary performance In fact Lee Thompson feels that creativity can been enhance in the organizations by ensuring greater diversity in the teams at the organization level Now dear students let’s have a quick recall of what we learnt one- groups can be either formal or informal whether formal groups are those Defined by the organization structure with designated work assignments establishing task while the informal groups can be referred to as alliances that they are neither formerly structured nor organizationally determined Its possible to sab classify the groups as command, task, interest or friendship groups the various types of work groups informal groups can be like production group service groups management groups or project groups or they can be action and performing groups and of course they can be in the nature of being advisory group also

The intergroup behavior can assume different platforms like accommodation, avoidance, collaboration, competition, compromise, De individuation and interdependence which may be that pooled interdependence, sequential interdependence or reciprocal interdependence Intergroup conflict may be caused by competition for resources goal incompatibility, time incompatibility and contentious influence tactics Now there are activities organizations can participate in to reduce competition between the groups Effect related to conflict between group maybe either negative or positive Now the quality of intergroup relations can be improved by introducing superordinate goal, negotiations, member exchanges, intergroup team development and reducing the need for intergroup interaction

Now whatever the type of group a formal one or informal one its need to perform its designated function in an effective and efficient manner which is very important more importantly every group needs to perform task functions for the successful performance of the work or the task and maintenance function for ensuring the satisfaction of the members and inculcating team spirit in them Though there are number of factors which might influence the effectiveness of the group but some of the most prominent factors could be the structure of the team or the group the work team processes Apart from these two factors other factors which are gaining importance in the Global workforce of today are the workforce diversity and creativity with a significant invisible impact on the functioning and outcome of the group in the Global organizations today thank you

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