A symbol that represents a speech sound and is a unit of an alphabet

Question:A symbol that represents a speech sound and is a unit of an alphabet

Table of Contents

Phonemes

Speech sounds are called ‘phonemes’. In English, there are about 44 phonemes, although this number sometimes varies depending upon a person’s dialect.

In phonetics and linguistics, a phone is any distinct speech sound or gesture, regardless of whether or not the exact sound is critical to the meanings of words. In contrast, a phoneme is a speech sound that, in a given language, if it were swapped with another phoneme, would change the meaning of the word. Phones are absolute, not specific to any language, but phonemes can be discussed only in reference to specific languages.

For example, the English words kid and kit end with two distinct phonemes, and swapping one for the other would change the word’s meaning. However, the difference between the p sounds in pun (pʰ, with a puff of air) and spun (p, no puff of air) never affects the meaning of a word in English so they are phones and not phonemes. By contrast, swapping the same two sounds in Urdu can change one word into another: pʰal means ‘fruit’, and pal means ‘moment’ (CIIL 2008).

In the context of spoken languages, a phone is an unanalyzed sound of a language (Loos 1997). A phone is a speech segment that possesses distinct physical or perceptual properties and serves as the basic unit of phonetic speech analysis. Phones are generally either vowels or consonants.

A phonetic transcription (based on phones) is enclosed within square brackets ([ ]) rather than the slashes (/ /) of a phonemic transcription (based on phonemes). Phones (and often phonemes also) are commonly represented using symbols of the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA).

For example, the English word spin consists of four phones, [s], [p], [ɪ] and [n], and thus it has the phonetic representation [spɪn]. The word pin has three phones; in that word, the initial sound is aspirated and so can be represented as [pʰ]; the word’s phonetic representation would then be [pʰɪn]. (Precisely the features shown in a phonetic representation depends on whether a narrow or broad transcription is being used the features that the writer wishes to draw attention in the context.)

When phones are considered to be realizations of the same phoneme, they are called allophones of that phoneme (more information on the methods of making such assignments can be found under phoneme). In English, for example, [p] and [pʰ] are considered allophones of a single phoneme, written as /p/. The phonemic transcriptions of the above two words is consequently /spɪn/ and /pɪn/, aspiration no longer being shown since it is not distinctive.

Vowels

Phoneme IPA Symbol Graphemes Examples
25 æ a, ai, au cat, plaid, laugh
26 a, ai, eigh, aigh, ay, er, et, ei, au, a_e, ea, ey bay, maid, weigh, straight, pay, foyer, filet, eight, gauge, mate, break, they
27 e e, ea, u, ie, ai, a, eo, ei, ae end, bread, bury, friend, said, many, leopard, heifer, aesthetic
28 i: e, ee, ea, y, ey, oe, ie, i, ei, eo, ay be, bee, meat, lady, key, phoenix, grief, ski, deceive, people, quay
29 ɪ i, e, o, u, ui, y, ie it, england, women, busy, guild, gym, sieve
30 i, y, igh, ie, uy, ye, ai, is, eigh, i_e spider, sky, night, pie, guy, stye, aisle, island, height, kite
31 ɒ a, ho, au, aw, ough swan, honest, maul, slaw, fought
32 o, oa, o_e, oe, ow, ough, eau, oo, ew open, moat, bone, toe, sow, dough, beau, brooch, sew
33 ʊ o, oo, u,ou wolf, look, bush, would
34 ʌ u, o, oo, ou lug, monkey, blood, double
35 u: o, oo, ew, ue, u_e, oe, ough, ui, oew, ou who, loon, dew, blue, flute, shoe, through, fruit, manoeuvre, group
36 ɔɪ oi, oy, uoy join, boy, buoy
37 ow, ou, ough now, shout, bough
38 ə a, er, i, ar, our, ur about, ladder, pencil, dollar, honour, augur
39 eəʳ air, are, ear, ere, eir, ayer chair, dare, pear, where, their, prayer
40 ɑ: a arm
41 ɜ:ʳ ir, er, ur, ear, or, our, yr bird, term, burn, pearl, word, journey, myrtle
42 ɔ: aw, a, or, oor, ore, oar, our, augh, ar, ough, au paw, ball, fork, poor, fore, board, four, taught, war, bought, sauce
43 ɪəʳ ear, eer, ere, ier ear, steer, here, tier
44 ʊəʳ ure, our cure, tourist

Consonants

Phoneme IPA Symbol Graphemes Examples Voiced?
1 b b, bb bug, bubble Yes
2 d d, dd, ed dad, add, milled Yes
3 f f, ff, ph, gh, lf, ft fat, cliff, phone, enough, half, often No
4 g g, gg, gh,gu,gue gun, egg, ghost, guest, prologue Yes
5 h h, wh hop, who No
6 j, ge, g, dge, di, gg jam, wage, giraffe, edge, soldier, exaggerate Yes
7 k k, c, ch, cc, lk, qu ,q(u), ck, x kit, cat, chris, accent, folk, bouquet, queen, rack, box No
8 l l, ll live, well Yes
9 m m, mm, mb, mn, lm man, summer, comb, column, palm Yes
10 n n, nn,kn, gn, pn net, funny, know, gnat, pneumonic Yes
11 p p, pp pin, dippy No
12 r r, rr, wr, rh run, carrot, wrench, rhyme Yes
13 s s, ss, c, sc, ps, st, ce, se sit, less, circle, scene, psycho, listen, pace, course No
14 t t, tt, th, ed tip, matter, thomas, ripped No
15 v v, f, ph, ve vine, of, stephen, five Yes
16 w w, wh, u, o wit, why, quick, choir Yes
17 z z, zz, s, ss, x, ze, se zed, buzz, his, scissors, xylophone, craze Yes
18 ʒ s, si, z treasure, division, azure Yes
19 ch, tch, tu, ti, te chip, watch, future, action, righteous No
20 ʃ sh, ce, s, ci, si, ch, sci, ti sham, ocean, sure, special, pension, machine, conscience, station No
21 θ th thongs No
22 ð th leather Yes
23 ŋ ng, n, ngue ring, pink, tongue Yes
24 j y, i, j you, onion, hallelujah Yes

That is still k. The talk sound k is within the alphabet written as k /kei/, but in phonetic alphabet based on the IPA it is k still. Spelling a notice predicated on alphabet and writing it in international phonetic alphabet is often different, but also for k it’s the same.

 

Related Searches:

A symbol that represents a speech sound and is a unit of an alphabet k

Glossary of reading terms

letter of the alphabet

Speech sounds and letters

Language arts 1 Flashcards

 

Do NOT follow this link or you will be banned from the site!